Alienazione Genitoriale

Scritto il . Stampa

W. Bernet raccoglie il testimone di R. Gardner

Definizione

Nella proposta originaria di Richard Gardner(1985), la PAS è intesa come "un disordine che insorge primariamente nel contesto di conflitti sulla custodia dei bambini. La sua principale manifestazione è la campagna denigratoria di un bambino contro un genitore, campagna che non ha giustificazione. Il disordine risulta dalla combinazione di indottrinamento dal genitore alienante e i contributi propri del bambino allo svilimento del genitore alienato".[1] La sostanza del concetto, seppure con un'etichetta diversa, è ripresa dallo psichiatra forense statunitense William Bernet (n. 1941), per il quale "l'alienazione parentale è una condizione psicologica nella quale un bambino nel corso di un divorzio conflittuale si allea fortemente con un genitore (il genitore preferito) e rifiuta la relazione con l'altro genitore (il genitore alienato) senza giustificazione legittima" (id., 2010: xvii; 3).

Lo stesso Bernet (2010: 3-5) fornisce alcuni chiarimenti terminologici. Nella sua proposta:

Bernet (2008: 356-357) segnala altre definizioni concettuali esistenti nella letteratura scientifica che rimandano comunque alla stessa situazione disfunzionale:

Caratteristiche (Gardner)

Gardner (1992)[3] ha inizialmente individuato nel bambino 8 sintomi caratteristici della PAS, e in seguito (Gardner, 1998)[4] ha identificato altri 4 sintomi (in corsivo nella tabella), per un totale di 12. A seconda dell'intensità dei sintomi la PAS può presentarsi come lieve, moderata o grave.

Caratteristiche Lieve Moderata Severa
Campagna di denigrazione minima moderata elevata
Razionalizzazioni deboli, superficiali e assurde per giustificare il biasimo minima moderata multiple razionalizzazioni assurde
Mancanza di ambivalenza[5] ambivalenza normale nessuna ambivalenza nessuna ambivalenza
Fenomeno del "pensatore indipendente"[6] abitualmente assente presente presente
Appoggio automatico al genitore "amato" e alienante nel conflitto genitoriale minimo presente presente
Assenza di senso di colpa per la crudeltà e/o l'insensibilità verso il genitore alienato senso di colpa normale senso di colpa da minimo a assente senso di colpa assente
Presenza di scenari presi a prestito[7] minimi presenti presenti
Estensione dell'ostilità alla famiglia allargata del genitore odiato minima presente elevata, spesso fanatica
Difficoltà di transizione al momento delle visite abitualmente assenti moderate elevate o incontro impossibile
Comportamento durante le visite presso il genitore alienato buono occasionalmente antagonistico o provocatorio nessun incontro o comportamento distruttivo ed incessantemente provocatorio durante tutto l'incontro
Legame con il genitore alienante solido, sano solido, da lievemente a moderatamente patologico gravemente patologico, spesso legame paranoide
Legame con il genitore alienato (prima che intervenisse il processo di alienazione) solido, sano o minimamente patologico solido, sano o minimamente patologico solido, sano o minimamente patologico

Caratteristiche (Bernet)

Lo psichiatra William Bernet ha di fatto raccolto l'eredità di Gardner portando avanti le sue ricerche, preferendo però l'uso dell'espressione PAD (invece di PAS) e non vincolando la presenza del disturbo all'attività denigratoria di un genitore. Nella sua proposta di inserimento del PAD nel DSM-5, Bernet (2008)[8] suggerisce un quadro diagnostico che riprende (spesso parola per parola) gli 8 sintomi già descritti da Gardner (1992), tralasciando gli altri 4 proposti successivamente (Gardner, 1998):

Criteri per il Disturbo di alienazione parentale

 

L'alienazione parentale esiste o non è riconosciuta dalla scienza ? 

Che fondamento ha l'affermazione: "l'alienazione parentale è rigettata dalla comunità scientifica"?  L'alienazione genitoriale è un concetto dannoso che mette a rischio la tutela dei minori e delle donne?

In questa tabella bibliografica sono messe a confronto le fonti significative pro e contro l'alienazione genitoriale che W.Bernet ha raccolto e fornito agli estensori del DSM. Vengono classifica come pro tutte le fonti allegate alla proposta Bernet di inclusione di una classificazione formale dell'alienazione genitoriale nel DSM. Vengono classificati come contro le fonti che sostengono la tesi secondo cui l'uso di uno schema teorico psicologico o psichiatrico per spiegare il fenomeno della manipolazione dei figli nel corso della separazione sarebbe stato rifiutato dalla comunità scientifica. 9 publicazioni contro 594 a favore.

 

Bigliografia a supporto della PAS Bibliografia critici della PAS
  1. Adams, K. (2009). The parentectomy: An individual perspective on rising above parental alienation. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Publishing.
  2. Aguilar, J. M. (2004). S.A.P., S´ındrome de alienaci´on parental [PAS, Parental alienation syndrome] [Spanish]. C´ordoba, Spain: Almuzara.
  3. Aguilar, J. M. (2005). El uso de los hijos en los procesos de separaci´on, El s´ındrome de alienaci´on parental [The use of children in separation processes: The parental alienation syndrome] [Spanish]. Revista de Derecho de Familia, 29, 71– 82.
  4. Aguilar, J. M. (2007). Interferencias de las relaciones paterno filiales: El S´ındrome de alienaci´on parental y las nuevas formas de violencia contra la infancia [Interference of the parent-child relationships: Parental alienaton syndrome and new forms of violence against children] [Spanish]. Revista Psicolog´ıa Educativa, 13(2), 101–116.
  5. Aguilar, J. M. (2008a). Tenemos que hablar [We need to talk]. [Spanish]. Madrid, Spain: Santillana Ediciones Generales.
  6. Aguilar, J. M. (2008b). S´ındrome de alienac¸ `ao parental [Parental alienation syndrome]. [Portuguese]. Lisbon, Portugal: Caleidoscopio. P. R. (1994).
  7. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents’ divorce. Future of Children, 4(1), 143–164.
  8. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1997a). Practice parameters for the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents who may have been physically or sexually abused. Journal of the American Academy of Child &Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(3), 423–442.
  9. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1997b). Practice parameters for child custody evaluation. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(10 Suppl), 57S–68S.
  10. American Bar Association. (2008). A judge’s guide: Making child-centered decisions in custody cases, 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.
  11. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
  12. American Psychological Association. (1994). Guidelines for child custody evaluations in divorce proceedings. American Psychologist, 49(4), 677–680.
  13. American Psychological Association. (1996). Report of the American psychological presidential task force on violence and the family. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  14. American Psychological Association. (2005). Women’s psych-e. Retrieved September 26, 2009, from American Psychological Association Web site: www.apa.org
  15. American Psychological Association. (2008). Statement on parental alienation syndrome. Retrieved September 26, 2009, from American Psychological Association Web site: www.apa.org
  16. American Psychological Association. (2009). Guidelines for child custody evaluations in family law proceedings. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  17. Andre, K. C. (2004). Parent alienation syndrome. Annuals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 7(4), 7–11.
  18. Andre, K. C., & Baker, A. J. C. (2009). I don’t want to choose: How middle school kids can avoid choosing one parent over the other. New York: The Vincent J.
  19. Fontana Center for Child Protection. Andritzky, W. (2002a). Verhaltensmuster und pers¨onlichkeitsstruktur entfremdender eltern, Psychosoziale diagnostik und orientierungskriterien f¨ur interventionen [Behavioral patterns and personality structure of alienating parents, Psychosocial and diagnostic criteria for intervention]. [German]. Psychotherapie in Psychiatrie,Psychotherapie in Psychiatrie, 7(2), 166–182.
  20. Andritzky, W. (2002b). Zur problematik kinder¨arztlicher atteste bei umgangs- und sorgerechtsstreitigkeiten I [Concerning problems with pediatric reports in the context of visitation- and custody litigation I]. [German]. Kinder- und Jugendarzt, 33(11), 885–889.
  21. Andritzky, W. (2002c). Zur problematik kinder¨arztlicher atteste bei umgangs- und sorgerechtsstreitigkeiten II [Concerning problems with pediatric reports in the context of visitation- and custody litigation II]. [German]. Kinder- und Jugendarzt, 33(12), 984–990.
  22. Andritzky, W. (2003a). Parental alienation syndrome. Deutsches A¨rzteblatt, 100(2), 81–82.
  23. Andritzky, W. (2003b). Kinderpsychiatrische atteste im umgangs- und sorgerechtsstreit—ergebnisse einer befragung [Medical letters of child psychiatrists, & their role in custody and visitation litigation—Results of an inquiry] [German]. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 52(10), 794–811.
  24. Andritzky, W. (2003c). Entfremdungsstrategien im sorgerechts- und umgangsstreit, Zur Rolle von (kinder)¨arzlichen und -psychiatrischen “attesten” [Alienation strategies in custody and visitation litigations: The role of pediatricians’, physicians’and psychiatrists’ certificates] [German]. In W. von Boch-Galhau et al. (Eds.), Das Parental Alienation Syndrom, Eine interdisziplin¨are Herausforderung f ur scheidungsbegleitende Berufe (pp. 249–82). Berlin: Verlag f¨ur Wissenschaft und Bildung.
  25. Andritzky, W. (2003d). Behavioral patterns and personality structure of alienating parents, Psychosocial diagnostic and orientation criteria for intervention. In W.von Boch-Galhau et al. (Eds.), Das Parental Alienation Syndrom, Eine interdisziplin¨are Herausforderung f ¨ur scheidungsbegleitende Berufe (pp. 283–314). Berlin: Verlag f¨ur Wissenschaft und Bildung.
  26. Andritzky, W. (2006). The role of medical reports in the development of parental alienation syndrome. In R.A. Gardner, S. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 195–208). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
  27. Anthony, E. J., & Benedek, T. (Eds.). (1970). Parenthood: Its psychology and psychopathology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (AFCC) Task Force on Parenting Coordination.(2006). Guidelines for parenting coordination. Family Court Review,44, 164–181.
  28. Austin, Jr., R. B. (2006). PAS as a child against self. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 56–64). Springfield,IL: Charles C. Thomas.
  29. Babbie, E. R. (2007). The practice of social research (11th ed.). Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
  30. Bakal´aˇr, E. (1998). Das “parental alienation syndrome” (PAS) in der Tschechischen Republik [The “parental alienation syndrome” (PAS) in the Czech Republic] [German]. Zentralblatt f ¨ur Jugendrecht, 85(6), 268.
  31. Bakal´aˇr, E. (2002). Syndrom zavrˇzen´eho rodiˇce v ˇCesk´e Republice [Parental alienation syndrome in the Czech Republic] [Czech]. In Pru° vodce otcovstv´ım, aneb bez otce se ned´a (dobˇre) ˇz´ıt [A guide through fatherhood, one cannot live well without a father] (pp. 109–120). Prague, Czech Republic: Vyˇsehrad.
  32. Bakal´aˇr, E. (2003). Syndrom zavrˇzen´eho rodiˇce [Parental alienation syndrome] [Czech]. Psychologie dnes, 9(1), 28–29.
  33. Bakal´aˇr, E. (2006a). What motivates parents to indoctrinate their children with parental alienation syndrome? A perspective from the Czech Republic. In R.A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 302–309). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
  34. Bakal´aˇr, E. (2006b). Syndrom zavrˇzen´ı rodiˇce. Pˇr´ıˇciny, diagn´oza, terapie [Parental alienation syndrome, etiology, diagnostics, therapy] [Czech]. In Rozvodov´a tematika a modern´ı psychologie [Divorce Topics and Modern Psychology] (pp. 40–58). Prague, Czech Republic: Karolinum.
  35. Bakal´aˇr, E., & Nov´ak, D. (1996). Popouzen´ı d´ıtˇete proti druh´emu rodiˇci [Inciting the child against the other parent] [Czech]. In Pru° vodce Rozvodem[A Guide Through Divorce] (pp. 133–142). Prague, Czech Republic: Lidov´e noviny.
  36. Bakal´aˇr, E., & Nov´ak, D. (1999). Syndrom zavrˇzen´eho rodiˇce v ˇCesk´e republice [PAS in the Czech Republic] [Czech]. Rodinn´e pr´avo, (4), 11–16.
  37. Baker, A. J. L. (2005a). The long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children: A qualitative research study. American Journal of Family Therapy, 33(4), 289–302.
  38. Baker, A. J. L. (2005b). The cult of parenthood: A qualitative study of parental alienation. Cultic Studies Review, 4(1), np.
  39. Baker, A. J. L. (2005c). Parent alienation strategies: A qualitative study of adults who experienced parental alienation as a child. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23(4), 41–63.
  40. Baker, A. J. L. (2006a). The power of stories/stories about power: Why therapists and clients should read stories about the parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(3), 191–203.
  41. Baker, A. J. L. (2006b). Patterns of parental alienation syndrome: A qualitative study of adults who were alienated from a parent as a child. American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(1), 63–78.
  42. Baker, A. J. L. (2007a). Knowledge and attitudes about the parental alienation syndrome: A survey of custody evaluators. American Journal of Family Therapy, 35(1), 1–19.
  43. Baker, A. J. L. (2007b). Adult children of parental alienation syndrome: Breaking the ties that bind. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
  44. Baker, A. J. L. (2010). Adult recall of parental alienation in a community sample: Prevalence and associations with psychological maltreatment. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 51(1), 16–35.
  45. Baker, A. J. L., & Andre, K. (2008). Working with alienated children and their targeted parents. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 11(2), 10–17.
  46. Baker, A. J. L., & Darnall, D. (2006). Behaviors and strategies employed in parental alienation: A survey of parental experiences. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 45(1–2), 97–124.
  47. Baker, A. J. L., & Darnall, D. (2007). A construct study of the eight symptoms of severe parental alienation syndrome: A survey of parental experiences. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 47(1–2), 55–75.
  48. Baldwin, A., & Tabb, M. (2008). A promise to ourselves: A journey through fatherhood and divorce. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  49. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67(6), 3296–3319.
  50. Barden, R. C. (2003). Building multi-disciplinary legal-scientific teams in PAS and child custody cases. In W. von Boch-Galhau et al. (Eds.), Das Parental Alienation Syndrom, Eine interdisziplin¨are Herausforderung f ¨ur scheidungsbegleitende Berufe (pp. 373–381). Berlin: Verlag fur Wissenschaft und Bildung.
  51. Barden, R. C. (2006). Protecting the fundamental rights of children and families: Parental alienation syndrome and family law reform. In R. A. Gardner, S. R.
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  53. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Baurain, M. (2005). Dossier l’ali´enation parentale: Pour poser les termes du d´ebat [Dossier on the parental alienation syndrome: Setting up the terms for debate] [French]. Divorce et S´eparation, (3), 5–12.
  54. B¨auerle, S., & Moll-Strobel, H. (Eds.). (2001). Eltern s ¨agen ihr kind entzwei—Trennungserfahrungen und entfremdung von einem elternteil [Parents sawing their child apart: Separation experiences and alienation of a parent][German]. Donauw¨orth, Germany: Auer Verlag.
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  56. Beeble, M. L., Bybee, D., & Sullivan, C. M. (2007). Abusive men’s use of children to control their partners and ex-partners. European Psychologist, 12(1), 54–61.
  57. Bellerose, J. (1998). De l’impasse du divorce `a l’ali´enation parentale [From a divorce deadlock to parental alienation] [French]. Dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
  58. Benedek, E. P., & Schetky, D. H. (1985). Allegations of sexual abuse in child custody and visitation disputes. In E. P. Benedek and D. H. Schetky (Eds.), Emerging issues in child psychiatry and the law (pp. 145–156). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
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  62. Bensussan, P. (2005). Interview du Docteur Paul Bensussan [Interview of Doctor Paul Bensussan] [French]. Divorce et S´eparation, 3, 78–89.
  63. Bensussan, P. (2009). L’ali´enation parentale, vers la fin du d´eni? [Parental alienation: Towards the end of the denial?] [French]. Annales M´edico-Psychologiques, 167, 409–415.
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  67. Bernet, W. (1997). Case study, allegations of abuse created in a single interview. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 966–970.
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  70. Bernet, W. (2006). Sexual abuse allegations in the context of child custody disputes. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 242–263). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
  71. Bernet, W. (2008). Parental alienation disorder and DSM–V. American Journal of Family Therapy, 36(5), 349–366.
  72. Bernet, William. (in press). Parental Alienation, DSM-V, and ICD-11. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas.
  73. Bernet, W., & Ash, D. (2007). Children of divorce: A practical guide for parents, therapists, attorneys, & judges (2nd ed.). Malabar, FL: Krieger.
  74. Berns, S. (2001). Parental alienation syndrome in the family court—magic bullet or poisoned chalice? Australian Journal of Family Law, 15(3), 191–214.
  75. Berns, S. (2006). Recognition of PAS in Australia. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 121–130). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
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Fonte:

http://www.alienazionepar.altervista.org/index.php/Fonti_a_confronto

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